Punjab: Ludhiana brick manufacturing cluster


Ludhiana is among the most important industrial cities in India. It hosts a large number of small-scale manufacturing units in diverse industrial sectors, including a cluster of about 330 brick kiln units. Almost all the brick units use fixed chimney type Bull’s Trench Kilns (BTKs). A few of the units use zig-zag technology for firing of green bricks. All the brick kilns are engaged in production of clay fired solid bricks through a manual production process. The average production capacity of a typical BTK in Ludhiana cluster is about 40,000 bricks per day. The brick kilns are engaged in production of bricks for about 6 months in a year—January to June. The average specific energy consumption (SEC)of brick kilns in the cluster is estimated to be 1.27 MJ per kg fi red brick, which is high compared to the optimal level of 1.1–1.2 MJ/kg-fi red brick for fixed-chimney BTKs and 0.9–1.1 MJ/kg-fi red brick for the zigzag firing process. This indicates good potential for improving the energy efficiency of the brick kilns in the cluster.

Products manufactured

Clay fired solid bricks

Number of brick kilns


Energy consumption


Main fuels


Total energy consumption (toe)


Leading industry association(s)

  • Ludhiana Brick Kiln Association
  • Punjab Brick Kiln Owners Association
  • All India Brick & Tile Manufacturers Federation

Cluster manual


Other resources

Source:Data pertains to 2017–18, collected primarily under the TERI–SSEF project

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Secretary - SAMEEEKSHA, Industrial Energy Efficiency Division,
TERI, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India
Tel: +91 11 2468 2100, 2468 2111 | Email: sameeeksha@teri.res.in