Uttar Pradesh: Clay Fired Brick Making Clusters


The state of Uttar Pradesh is one of the largest producers of bricks in India. Some of the major brick producing clusters in the state include Ghaziabad, Baghpat, Varanasi, Muzzafarnagar and Mirzapur. A majority of brick kiln units use manual process for green brick moulding; however, a few units have started using extruders for the same. The main brick firing technology use in the state is Bull’s trench kiln (BTK). A few units in the state have also adopted an energy-efficient brick firing technology, ‘zig-zag’. The major product of brick kiln is solid bricks. A very few brick kiln units are engaged in the production of resource efficient bricks (REB) such as perforated bricks and hollow blocks. The usual brick making season is December to June.

Products manufactured

Solid bricks; Resource Efficient Bricks (Perforated bricks, hollow blocks)

Number of Brick Kilns


Main fuels

Coal, Biomass

Annual Production

58 billion

Total energy consumption (toe)

5.6 million toe (annual)

Leading industry association(s)

  • U.P. Int Nirmata Samiti, Lucknow» Int Nirmata Parishad, Varanasi
  • All India Brick and Tiles Manufacturers Federation (AIBTMF), New Delhi

Source: TERI's interventions in brick sector under projects supported by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Department for International Development (DFID).

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Secretary - SAMEEEKSHA, Industrial Energy Efficiency Division,
TERI, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India
Tel: +91 11 2468 2100, 2468 2111 | Email: sameeeksha@teri.res.in